Media convergence is putting that book put onto your Kindle as another vehicle for content delivery, made into a movie, put on Audible, and even made into a video game for people to play with the story’s characters. The convergent networks will usher in a new era for future mobile networks with integrated multi-tier heterogeneous cells that provide flexible and adaptive ubiquitous coverage. The centralization and sharing among operators also simplify the work of hardware providers, as deployment and maintenance are therefore centralized with minimum peripheral parameters. RoF can support both digital RoF and analogue RoF, but analogue RoF will benefit more in terms of convergence and centralization. When a five-channel CA is applied, a 50 Gb s−1 speed will eventually consume all transceiver capacity. Mobile backhaul, midhaul and fronthaul in RANs. Which of the following is an Example of Technology?a. On the other hand, to meet the needs for higher spectral efficiency and bandwidth flexibility, mobile backhaul with more advanced modulation formats will be developed. (Online version in colour. This case raises important policy issues regarding howcountries encourage employment and new business start-ups.Senz has decided to manufacture in By converging traditional low-frequency radio and newly deployed high-frequency radio, RANs can provide an all-band access pipe for the highest channel capacity. In current RANs, digital fronthaul solutions such as CPRI and OBSAI are straightforward and robust approaches to fulfil basic LTE bandwidth needs. 60 GHz) provides very high-throughput coverage for minor-mobility indoor users. With the use of the same media platforms, they now have to work together and are becoming more and more one entity. However, considering the large bandwidth of MMW, requiring large numbers of high-speed ADCs and phase shifters, all-electronic control of antennas can cause significant power consumption, high cost, high complexity, large size and large weight. Crosstalk due to polarization rotation and MIMO transmission can be effectively solved based on advanced DSP algorithms, including the classic constant modulus algorithm [30]. The content creators can use the platform to generate customized content that is targeted at a specific group. Architectures of (a) distributed RAN and centralized RAN with (b) digital fibre-optic fronthaul and (c) RoF fronthaul. With the help of social networking sites, the public can interact with the media in a much more efficient way. By doing so, all the light sources for both downlink and uplink are aggregated at the optical line terminal (OLT). The ‘wall’ between different cells creates a challenge in both mobile users’ experience and the backhauling for cell sites. Two case stud . Convergence lead the media is more interactive and audience participation is encouraged. Moreover, with the interactive World Wide Web, audiences are able to download and share music, video, photo via social networking and become media produce. When we talk about the network convergence, it means the delivery of range of communication services with the assistance of a single cable. Physical resources including laser sources, radio sources and peripheral equipment can be shared among different operators that provide multiple services [10,11]. People get to bring out their hidden talents. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Millimeter-wave access and backhauling: the solution to the exponential data traffic increase in 5G mobile communications systems? Structure of resource sharing in a centralized RAN.Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint. In the traditional architecture deployed in current macrocell RANs, as shown in figure 2a, each base station (BS) can only handle traffic in its coverage area. A multi-tier radio access network (RAN) combining the strength of fibre-optic and radio access technologies employing adaptive microwave photonics interfaces and radio-over-fibre (RoF) techniques is envisioned for future heterogeneous wireless communications. Moreover, with the interactive World Wide Web, audiences are able to download and share music , video , photo via social networking and become media produce. Convergence should break these legacy ‘walls’ and merge all the isolated and precious bandwidth lanes into a super-speed highway that reaches all users in ubiquitous coverage in future mobile data networks. Photonics-aided coordination also improves the MMW transmission stability and mitigates ICI [36]. As shown in figure 5, on top of traditional low-frequency bands, the exploitation and convergence of CMW and MMW bands can provide potential multi-Gbps wireless links with continuous spectrum. This has also brought about a change in the dynamics of economy as distribution and cost structure is not the same in traditional media. In order to change the phase delay of each RF signal, a dispersion medium, such as fibre, fibre Bragg gratings or other wavelength-selective modules, can be used. Data allows us to make better predictions and creates new models of customer behavior f… This convergence should break these ‘walls’ and merge all the isolated lanes into a super-speed highway that reaches all users in ubiquitous coverage, as shown in figure 1. The evolution of integrating existing and emerging technologies to support the ultimate RAN convergence is happening rapidly. Multi-tier heterogeneous cells with different frequencies converge to ubiquitous coverage in a mobile network. In CPRI, a 20 MHz LTE signal, as an example, takes up to 10 Gb s−1 fronthaul rate. Many social media include a variety of functions. For example, a user that is 1 km away from the CO and covered by a small cell with 2 km fibre fronthaul (including 1 km of detour) has a fixed time offset of 6.7 μs without any jitter. Still, media convergence may stifle the quality of the content and allow for a possible media monopoly when a select few media companies control most of the media. It also expands, accelerates and facilitates its distribution, often with associated cost savings. Other DSP-based formats greatly increase the complexities in both DSP and synchronization, as complex computations are needed to recover each carrier or sub-carrier. Although local wireless networks have potential for traffic handover, users are simply served by independent radio access networks (RANs) and disconnected RATs. Mobile fronthaul is the physical link between the CO and RRHs/RAUs in a centralized RAN. In addition, greater audience engagement can help to enhance the way people experience the media. Between CMW and MMW, the latter one that has wide available unlicensed spectrum is capable of potential throughput enhancement by exploiting beam forming/steering through MIMO techniques in small cells. Media convergence can mean one of two things: Either the merging of previously distinct media technologies resulting from digitization and computer networking–some of which are covered elsewhere in this article–or an economic strategy in which the media properties owned by communications companies employ digitization and computer networking to work together. Based on the predictions of several major equipment suppliers, such as Ericsson, Nokia and Cisco, it is believed that, by 2020, wireless communication systems will have to support more than 1000 times today’s traffic volume, with a density of 10 000 smart devices connected per 1 km2 area [1–3]. The low-frequency small cells are normally in unlicensed bands (e.g. In this convergence, RATs, coverage, carrier aggregation (CA), architectures and communication media are inherently associated and jointly developed. Traditional low-frequency bands (less than 6 GHz), centimetre-wave (CMW) bands (6–30 GHz) and millimetre-wave (MMW) bands (30–300 GHz) are the three main groups of serving RF bands. …, China rather than TheNetherlands. Historically, the transition to new mobile technologies has resulted in the need for a fourfold to fivefold increase in backhaul capacity. the traditional distributed thermal control at each ONU can be replaced by an economical centralized cooling system at the OLT. However, only fundamental centralization is achieved by these techniques and they have been criticized for their implementation complexity and exceedingly low spectrum efficiency. In essence, this is a ‘no-more-cells’ architecture in which carrier aggregation among multiple frequency bands can be easily achieved with seamless handover between cells. Meaning of convergence Convergence comes from the prefix con-, meaning together, and the verb verge, which … RoF technology has been developed as an analogue solution that avoids digital components or extra processing overhead over fronthaul. In typical WDM-PON systems, optical network units (ONUs) at subscriber ends (BSs in this case) require distributed transmitters, receivers and other passive components, which greatly increase the OPEX/CAPEX (ratio of operational expenditure to capital expenditure) as the number of BSs will grow dramatically in future high-density coverage. Presentation about how media convergence influences media organizations and media work. Technological convergence simplifies the production of media content. As a result of convergence, no baseband or digital processing exists between the CO and UE in any fronthaul structure. As a result, with flexible signalling, the BBUs do not need to generate or process all the signals and this therefore reduces the complexity. Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5G cellular: it will work! However, in all generations so far, the network coverage is still composed of almost isolated cells. All of the above1. (Online version in colour.). Operators can effectively manage the communications between services from the upper layers inside the CO so that the traffic through the SGWs can be eliminated. It usually involves a process that decouples content from media, allowing the same story or entertainment to exist in multiple forms. The reconfiguration manipulated by the upper layers maintains the desired connections between BBUs and RAUs. Once a country which had fifty major media companies in 1983, America now, has only nine important multinational media conglomerates, some of which include Walt Disney, Time Warner, Comcast, News Corp., CBS and Viacom. Media convergence shifted all of the previous media products and services into online versions which boosted some companies into success and ended others (Wilson, 2010). Nevertheless, media convergence is really good and is something that has contributed immensely to the media coverage and to the growth and development of our society at large. Home; Explore; Successfully reported this slideshow. Besides cost and management savings, this simplification leads to an important property that the propagation delay is determined only by the fronthaul length. In current 4G networks, eNodeB, orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) and IP core are the major technologies that define the advancement of LTE from previous generations. The RF bands transmitted between the RAU and UEs contain signals from different services separated by divisions such as wavelength and frequency bands during optical transmission. Moreover, in both CPRI and OBSAI, their digital interfaces, causing unavoidable delay and jitter, become unfriendly to high-speed services requiring precise synchronization. From another aspect, each BBU belongs to the cloud to maximize its utilization. A phase antenna array is designed for this adaptive beam forming in different propagation conditions, including single-user and multi-user, line-of-sight (LoS) and non-LoS, static and mobile users. In the architecture of centralized RANs based on fibre–wireless convergence, all BS functions and most of the RF functions are shifted from cell sites to the BBU pool at the central office (CO). (Online version in colour.). Evolution from current RAN to future ubiquitous coverage. There's so much customer data coming in that we even coined a whole industry, Big Data, to talk about it! Easy. (Online version in colour.). Mobile backhaul, midhaul and fronthaul in RANs. )Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint, Figure 2. — most important, this centralized RAN architecture can maximize resource sharing among operators and services over the whole RAN; especially at the CO, with BBUs integrated inside the same pool, signalling, control, radio, channel state information as well as physical infrastructures can be efficiently shared. This fully centralized RAN architecture based on fibre–wireless convergence provides a solid solution for high-throughput access systems with superior features [10]: — RAUs are highly simplified, which reduces the room needed for cell sites, power consumption and demands for peripheral and technical support; — the cloud BBU pool reduces the number of BSs by several-fold; each BBU can serve multiple RAUs to increase the infrastructure utilization rate; — CO enables centralized processing and more flexible and efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) and radio resource management (RRM); as BBUs work together, joint processing and cooperative radio to mitigate inter-cell interference (ICI) provide a higher spectral efficiency; — centralization and DBA make the network more adaptive to non-uniform distributed traffic caused by the inter-cell movement of UE; — RoF fronthaul simplifies the generation and distribution of all frequency signals in a cost-effective way by microwave photonics (MWP) techniques and provides a seamless integration with centralized RANs; — the flexibility of centralization supports heterogeneous services and supplies an open platform for operations and maintenance (O&M), upgrade and service expansion for smooth evolution; and. The evolution and expansion of mobile fronthaul are directly driven by the exponential growth of users’ demands. This includes newspapers, television, internet, magazines, radio etc. However, resource sharing among BBUs is limited not only to a fixed service, but also to different services or even to different operators. However, their low efficiency will require unaffordable high-speed transceivers and limit any further bandwidth improvement when they are applied in future high-speed RANs. To reach high spectral efficiency, advanced MMW technologies are desired for signalling, and this is realized by the supporting fibre–wireless convergence. A digital photograph, for example, can be shot and circulated globally within seconds via the Internet. The short answer is data. Through television and radio programs, people get to learn about health matters, environmental conservation, and much more.2. The convergence starts from fibre–wireless integration, comes with multi-layer centralization and resource sharing, and results in seamless coordination among cells and services with accurate synchronization. …, Questions1. This can be considered as a one-on-N distributed antenna system scenario, which is likely in small-cell RANs due to the mobility and density of UE. In other words, RAU is a simplified version of RRH. This essay will discuss the importance of media convergence in the new media age. Published by the Royal Society. Combined with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), traditional CAP and SCM techniques are more straightforward and can achieve spectral efficiencies comparable with that of OFDM. Since MMW has small wavelength, massive MIMO technology with beam forming is promising for high-performance radio access. The multi-tier RAN will improve the cell-edge performance in an integrated heterogeneous environment enabled by fibre–wireless integration and networking for mobile fronthaul/backhaul, resource sharing and all-layer centralization of multiple standards with different frequency bands and modulation formats. In addition, greater audience engagement can help to enhance the way people experience the media. This is the 21st century, and media convergence … People get news daily through the media and this keeps them updated on the happenings around the world.3. Furthermore, in RoF-based fronthaul structures, all latencies are predictable, stable and easily compensatable at the CO, so that advance technologies such as CoMP transmission and multi-point license-assisted CA can be precisely synchronized. Benefits of Media Convergence: The content creators can use the platform to generate customized content that is targeted at a specific group. Assisted by MWP technologies, the converged design enables more efficient management for all the light sources, e.g. Since complexity is centralized at the OLT, the system has potential to further increase the capacity to adapt to future high-speed WDM-PON applications and mitigate those troublesome effects, including incomplete data erasing and signal back-reflections, of traditional reflective WDM-PONs without significantly increasing the cost. In a user’s view of convergence, ‘no more cells’ frames the mobility and ‘no more standards’ frames the experience. This trend is expected to continue into the 5G era in 2020 in the roadmap of 3GPP (the 3rd Generation Partnership Project) [4]. Though centralization and mobile fronthaul are going to play more and more important roles, distributed systems and mobile backhaul are still necessary to provide a fundamental tier in the heterogeneous network. It educates people. None of the existing radio access technologies (RATs) will be able individually to provide the capabilities that effectively meet market demands. The authors are grateful for the support of a special infrastructure grant from Georgia Research Alliance and an education fund from the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Georgia Tech. Convergence lead the media is more interactive and audience participation is encouraged. According to pro-consolidation arguments, due to converging technology the media houses are fueled through the preference to reach customers in one of a kind and regularly modern ways. Convergence gives us a vision of future mobile networks. All-band coverage and different service tiers. G.-K.C. Figure 3. Media convergence transforms established industries, services, and work practices and enables entirely new forms of content to emerge. Real-time dual-band wireless videos in millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber system, Key technologies of WDM-PON for future converged optical broadband access networks, OFDM for next-generation optical access networks, 11×5×9.3 Gb/s WDM-CAP-PON based on optical single-side band multi-level multi-band carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation with direct detection, Experimental demonstration of a 10 Gb/s subcarrier multiplexed WDM PON, Enhanced intercell interference coordination challenges in heterogeneous networks, Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results, Radio-over-fiber access architecture for integrated broadband wireless services, Optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion using external modulators. Moreover, peripheral resources such as air conditioning for BSs will become intolerable in terms of power consumption and installation. In this paper, we will review how such convergence happens and what the benefits to future mobile networks are. )Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint, Figure 1. Mobile fronthaul supports new-style small cells and as well inherits legacy cells, including macrocells from 4G and small cells from wireless local area networks (WLANs). Through media showcase their talents such as comedy, acting and singing.4. Discussion meeting issue ‘Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch’ organised and edited by Andrew Ellis, David Payne and David Saad. Extreme capacity, access data rate and performance demands are typically required for next-generation wireless access. This allows the user to get a telephone, TV, and internet from an unmarried enterprise, and pay a unmarried low-budget invoice, rather than 3 one of a kind bills. )Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint, Figure 4. One contribution of 14 to a discussion meeting issue ‘Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch’. It improves optical spectrum efficiency and simplifies RAU design, as signals are transmitted over the fronthaul in their RF form with relatively much smaller bandwidths, and no conversion is needed at the RAU. Benefits of Media Convergence: The content creators can use the platform to generate customized content that is targeted at a specific group. All-electrical phase-controlled antenna arrays can simultaneously change the amplitude and phase of the signal of each antenna in different RF chains, which allows for more flexible steering. However, although the target coverage of CMW and MMW small cells is smaller compared with low-frequency cells, there are several challenges for the deployment of these cells. In addition, local small cells are connected by mobile midhaul and supported by BSs [6]. With technological convergence, the electronic transmissio… It erodes long-established media industry and content “silos” and increasingly uncouples content from particular devices, which in turn presents major challenges for public policy and regulation. Media consolidation, also known as media convergence, is the concentration of media ownership with only a few companies or individuals. In the next-generation 5G mobile communications, a large number of antennas are needed at the cell site in order to support antenna techniques such as massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output), and each antenna needs a high-capacity stream in the CPRI scheme. This has also brought about a change in the dynamics of economy as distribution and cost structure is not the same in traditional media. The objective ofincubators is to encourage economic growth Future 5G RANs will increase the requirement for backhaul capacity by at least 10 times considering the effective throughput for each user and multi-antenna technologies. High capacity, low cost, flexibility and transparency to services are critical for mobile fronthaul design. As a transient structure between backhaul and fronthaul, mobile midhaul is the link between a macro-BBU and its extending RAUs, as shown in figure 4. This has also brought about a change in the dynamics of economy as distribution and cost structure is not the same in traditional media. (Online version in colour.). and L.C. RRH consists of parts of baseband functions and all RF functions. Bit rates above 100 Gb s−1 have been attained by adopting spectrum-efficient modulation formats and digital coherent detection enabled by fibre–wireless convergence [28–30]. The multi-tier coverage for mobile users takes advantage of all the above potential frequency bands by supporting multiple types of RATs and inter-band CA. RoF as the core technique to realize fronthaul convergence can solve most of the problems that a distributed digital system may incur. In terms of users’ experience, the future-proof approach achieves the goals of system capacity, link speed, latency and continuous heterogeneous cell coverage while overcoming the bandwidth crunch in next-generation communication networks. source :convergence. The sharing in this level may include communications between operators inside the CO, which greatly reduces the core network traffic and improves the efficiency of common services supplied by multiple operators. Though midhaul and fronthaul have similar roles, fronthaul has higher convergence, especially in a fully centralized architecture. With the help of digital data gathering techniques and analytics, marketers can track many different consumer behavior variables at many different stages of the sales funnel. More and more mobile fronthaul links will coexist with traditional mobile backhaul and midhaul as convergence occurs in RANs. So have similar digital signal processing (DSP)-based modulation formats such as generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM), universal filtered multi-carrier (UFMC) and filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) for high spectral efficiency. Explain the rationale to enter a mature market with asuccessful and established brand, the GustBuster®.​, what do you mean when we say culture is diverse​, elore each number.d 1. A solid fronthaul design is the key approach to build efficient pipes between BBUs and users in terms of coverage, throughput, bandwidths, multi-service, quality, cost and compatibility with long-term convergence. The convergence originates from fibre–wireless integration to macro- and small cells with multi-layer centralization and resource sharing, and results in seamless coordination among cells and services with accurate synchronization in future mobile networks. Two case stud. A convergence is basically seen in every person’s cell phone; glance down at your palm, and there sits a device that can click a photograph, edit and modify the same, and also send it in a mail. Media convergence describes the collaboration between, or fusion of, at least two types of media in mutually beneficial projects. People get the latest news in a very short time. Sharing happens not only inside the CO, but over the whole access infrastructure. After photo-detection, the MMW signal is transmitted by the antenna array with the desired beam form. The Media Convergence research theme normally refers to entire production, distribution, and use process of future digital media services from contents production to service delivery through … A photonic amplitude-changing module or chip is required to change the intensity of the split optical signals. Different approaches for the realization of a high-speed fibre–wireless integration system as mobile backhaul/fronthaul, including optical polarization division multiplexing (PDM) combined with MIMO reception [31,32], advanced multi-level modulation, multi-carrier modulation [30], antenna polarization multiplexing [33,34], MMW CoMP transmissions [35,36] and multi-band multiplexing, have been proposed [37]. (Online version in colour. In addition, RoF facilitates the generation and distribution of high-frequency signals in optical approaches, as high-frequency signalling burdens fronthaul systems much more than low-frequency microwave signals [22]. The centralized radio access network (C-RAN) architecture has been proposed to extract the baseband signal processing functions from distributed BSs and collocate the baseband units (BBUs) into a pool for centralized signal processing and management, as shown in figure 2b [7]. benefits of media convergence. All-band radio spectrum from 0.1 to 100 GHz will be used to deliver wireless services with high capacity, high link speed and low latency. As mobile fronthaul networks evolve from 4G to 5G, it becomes technically challenging and cost-prohibitive to accommodate multiple bands and multiple services into the conventional C-RAN network using digital interfaces. Demands and provide ubiquitous coverage in a heterogeneous form to fulfil different demands and provide coverage! Bbu transmitter can be replaced by an economical centralized cooling system at the OLT multiple of. Be replaced by an economical centralized cooling system at the optical line terminal ( OLT ) they have been for... 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